COMPLAINTS AND SPECIAL NEEDS

Of course you can lodge a complaint either during or after a Cambridge exam. It’s even encouraged during the sound test before the Listening Paper, especially as you can’t interrupt the listening. In other cases, the best idea is to complain immediately – in writing if it’s really important and needs t reach the authorities. If you “remember” that the room was too noisy on seeing your exam result, your complaint is not going to sound too well, isn’t it?

If anything objective occurs (the sound system doesn’t work, a bird flies into the room, an invigilator dies of a heart attack), Cambridge is sure to give you another chance or some extra minutes, depending on the situation, so don’t worry.

Also, if you have any special needs that are documented, let your centre know while signing up for the exam, so that they can help you. The help ranges from wearing headphones during the listening exam to being in a separate room to being able to write your writing exam on a computer.

http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/help/complaints/

http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/help/special-requirements/

http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/help/special-considerations/

ANSWER SHEETS

Did you know that you can google CAE answer sheets using Google Images? These are the sheets where you mark the correct answers. Have a look at them, read the instruction – it will save you time and nerves during the real exam.

Remember that the sheets are later read by a machine. It’s important to shade the lozanges well, use capital letters if necessary, not to write outside of the box etc.

The lozanges are the little boxes. You don’t just tick them – they need to be completely filled with one colour.

If in doubt, ask an invigilator during the exam – they are there to help.

LISTENING VIA TED TALKS

It’s very popular these days to recommend listening to TED talks online to Cambridge exam candidates as well as other learners of English. There are thousands of topics to choose from plus, more importantly, they are similar to those of Cambridge exam listenings where there is only one person speaking. It’s TED talks and the BBC, not series, that you should listen to on regular basis.

Here’s a little trick to make your listening more active.

While listening to a talk, make note if the moments where you heard the typical English whaglumbriglum instead of separate words: “Ok, so he said something about hotdogs and then no idea”. Your list should look like this: hotdogs….? beach…? his birthday…? (If there are many fragments like that choose just a few)

Now listen again with English subtitles on (most talks have subtitles). Locate the difficult fragments and remember them or write them down.

Listen again looking at your notes. Rewind, close your eyes, whatever you like.

At some point you are either going to hear all the words or learn that whochugo-ere means “what have you got here” 🙂

You can also use lyricstraining.

Please don’t watch anything for the first time with the subtitles on. This is not listening – it’s reading.

LISTENING VIA PRONUNCIATION (3)

RULE 2: YOU CAN´T MATCH LETTERS TO SOUNDS

Let´s go back to Spanish, Japanese and other syllable-based languages. We talked about speaking and listening, but READING is also important. Of course, every language has certain spelling rules and many national alphabets contain a few “strange letters”. In Spanish we pronounce “j” more or less like English “h”, but in Swedish “j” is similar to English “y”. We have all seen Spanish “ñ” and German “ö”.

English, of course, is much much worse. With consonants, ok, you can remember what “sh” or “w” are, but with vowels remember the name of this chapter – English vowels do not equal the vowels in the alphabet. The “a” in “bat” is not the “a” you know, the “i” in “bit” is not “your” “i” and so on.

You must remember that in linguistics letters and sounds are two different things. The alphabet that we use is something made simpler than the reality. Linguists themselves use something which you might know from dictionaries – strange symbols such as “æ” or “ŋ”. In this alphabet, the so-called phonetic alphabet, English “bang”, for instance, is spelled “bæŋ”, while a typical Spanish student pronounces it as “bаnk”. English words “bang” and “bank” are not pronounced in the same way.

The easiest way to start understanding these differences is to sing the Engilsh “ABC song”: “ey, bee, see, dee…”. How are the vowels pronounced there?

 

In the Alphabet Song…

…the letter “a” is pronounced “ey” in “hey”.

…the letter “e” is pronounced “ee” in “bee”.

…the letter “i” is pronounced the pronoun “I”.

…the letter “o” is pronounced “ou”, like in “oh no”.

…the letter “u” is pronounced “you”.

 

Exercise 12.

The letter “a” is often pronounced “ey” in “hey”.

basic                                        DNA

Asia                                         CIA

radio                                        AIDS

label                                         Colgate

Wales                                       Fairy

rational                                    Gmail

creative                                    Jamaica

 

Exercise 13.

The letter “e” is often pronounced “ee” in “bee”. 

creative                                    Wikipedia

athlete                                      Sweden

vehicle                                     Egypt

theory                                      Ikea

results                                      Aphrodite

premature                               Nike

 

Exercise 14.

The letter “i” is often pronounced the pronoun “I”.

bilingual                                 Ireland

microwave                              Orion

organisation                           Ikea

specialisation                          Microsoft

vital                                         HIV

obliged                                    FBI

biography                               CIA

 

Exercise 15.

Don´t confuse the diphthongs from exercises 12 and 14 (like my boyfriend).

wait                                         white

race                                          rice

tape                                          type

say                                           sigh

mail                                         mile

 

Exercise 16.

The letter “o” is often pronounced “ou”, like in “oh no”.

code                                         Rome

ghost                                        NGO

whole                                      post

local                                         low

total                                         roast

cosy                                         pony

both                                         roll

 

Exercise 17.

The letter “u” is sometimes pronounced “you”.

pure                                         Puma

cure                                         Youtube

tuna                                         the EU

 

As you can see, the vowels are OFTEN pronounced like in the ABC song, but not always. So how do we know when to pronounce them this way? Let´s have a look at some pairs:

 

Exercise 18.

Asia – Adam

athlete – let

vital – bit

local – lock

tube – tub

pure – purr

 

The rules seems to be that if (in writing) a vowel is followed by a consonant and then another vowel, its pronunciation is like in the Alphabet Song. If a vowel is the only vowel in a short word, its pronunciation is often similar to the “normal/international/Spanish” pronunciation of that letter.

 

A vowel is followed by a consonant and then another vowel (followed by them in writing – the final “e”. for example”, is usually not pronounced)

Asia                 a + s + i

athlete             e + t + e

local                o + c + a

tube                 u + b + e

pure                 u + r + e

 

Is this enough? Unfortunately, not. Just look at the “a” in “Asia”, “Adam”, “father”, “many” and “total” – that´s five different pronunciations, not just two! And the sound in “but”, isn´t it an “a”, too? Also, we have just said that if a vowel is the only vowel in a short word, its pronunciation is often similar to the “normal/international/Spanish” pronunciation of that letter, but it´s not true for the “u” in “tub” or “purr” in Exercise 17.

This problem can be solved by looking not at letters, but at sounds. In English there are more vowel sounds that in many other languages. What are they? Here are the most difficult ones.

First, let´s analyse the ways in which the letter “a” is pronounced in “Asia”, “Adam”, “father”, “many”,“total” and “but”. The sound in “baby” is the sound from the Alphabet Song: “ey”. The sound in “many” is a surprise, an exception – is just the “normal” “e”. The sound in “total” we have already discussed – we try to “eat” it. This leaves us with three more sounds.

 

ENGLISH A-SOUND NUMBER 1 – THE RELAXED SOUND

Imagine the sound you make when you stretch in your bed in the morning: it´s something between “a” and “e”, it´s quite long and the muscles in your mouth are relaxed: “Aaaaah”. A similar sound, but much louder, is made when someone is falling out of a window: “Aaaaaaaaaa!” Bum. Of course, it´s not that dramatic when used in words, but long it is, and it might seem funny to you to pronounce it for a longer time than your “normal” “a”. Anyway, don´t worry about the pronunciation that much – the most important thing is to HEAR the difference.

 

Exercise 19.

English a-sound number 1 – the relaxed sound:

Adam                                      ham

Ana                                         ran

Batman                                    back

 

 

ENGLISH A-SOUND NUMBER 2 – THE HICCUPS

Simply the sound we associate with hiccups – a very short “a” with the muscles in your mouth tense: “a… a… a… a… a…”. It´s usually spelled with the letter “u”… or (to our surprise) “o”.

 

Exercise 20.

English a-sound number 2 – the hiccups:

cut                                           come                                       London                                   worry

untidy                                     son                                          wonder                                   mother

but                                          won                                         front                                        some

hum                                        money                                     oven                                        blood

run                                          onion                                       cover                                       ultra

buck                                        love                                         cousin                                     stomach

tub                                           month                                      tough                                       sponge

 

ENGLISH A-SOUND NUMBER 3 – THE QUEEN´S LONG “A”

Imagine you are a queen and someone is explaining something to you. When you finally understand the explanation, you make a sound like a long, dignified “aaa”. Or maybe you are a sleepy queen who is yawning: “aaa”. (For some people it helps to imagine a man dressed up as a queen). The sound is often represented by the letters “ar”.

 

Exercise 21.

English a-sound number 3 – the queen´s long “a”:

father                          plant                           staff                             calm

dance                          bath                            laughed                       almond

France                        class                            heart                           half

past                             banana                       aunt                            Derby

last                              garage                         answer                       clerk

basket                         moustache                  graph                         Margaret

mask                           example                      trans                           star

 

Why is it more important to hear the difference than to pronounce the difference between all those different sounds? People will understand you from the context, but you might not guess what THEY are saying. Compare the trios and pairs:

 

Exercise 22.

The three English a-sounds:

cat – cut – cart                                    bat – but – Bart                     some – Sam – psalm

ham – hum – harm                            back – buck – bark               ran – ran

stuff – stuff                                         come – calm                           hat – hut – heart

ant – aunt                                           pub – path                              sun, son – sang

 

Ok, so in English we have three different a-sounds, but we don´t have the “normal” (that is, for example, Spanish) “a”. We also have two different o-sounds (“port” vs. “pot”) and two different u-sounds (“fool” vs. “full”), but personally I think we can ignore them at this level. In this way, the remaining pair are the two i-sounds (I mean, “i” as pronounced in Spanish, German or Polish). Below you can see some of the examples with the “long i” (spelled “e”) from Exercise 13. contrasted with the “short i”:

 

Exercise 23.

“Long i” versus “short i”:

bilingual – Bill                                               vital – bit

microwave – Mick                                         fragile – Gill

How do we know which one to use? That usually follows our rule described under Exercise 18. But be careful! First, the difference between the two i-sounds is not only that one is long and the other one short. Also, the “short i” is not “your” “i”, the Spanish/German/Polish “i”.

 

ENGLISH “LONG I” – THE SMILING SOUND

This “i” (usually spelled “e”, “ee” or “ea”) is not only ridiculously long – it´s also pronounced with a crazy smile 🙂 You need to feel that your tongue is pushing downwards.

 

Exercise 24.

English “long i” – the smiling sound:

eat                               receipt                         Egypt

feel                              seat                              Tunisia

bean                            leek                             Swedish

leave                            heap                            vehicle

machine                      feet                              athlete

 

ENGLISH “SHORT I” – THE VOMITING SOUND

This “i” (usually spelled “i”) is a bit like a short version of the sound we make when we are vomiting or dying in a film at the age of 90. Try to pronounce the three i-sounds: with the long one you should be smiling and pushing downwards, the “normal” “i” is neutral and “in the middle” of your mouth, the “short i” has the highest position in the mouth and is more”at the front” of the mouth, as if you were trying to push something out of your mouth, as if you were trying to vomit.

 

Exercise 25.

English “short i” – the vomiting sound:

it                                  resit                             Iggy

fill                                sit                                Venice

bin                               lick                              widow

live                              hip                               Vicky

chin                             fit                                 lit

 

wanted                       pretty                          busy

kitchen                       believe                         refuse

English                       women                        perfect

poet                             private                        college

lettuce                         build                           Monday

 

Exercise 26.

The two English i-sounds:

it – eat                         resit – receipt              Iggy – Egypt

fill – feel                      sit – seat                      Venice – Tunisia

bin – bean                   lick – leek                    widow – Swedish

live – leave                  hip – heap                   Vicky – vehicle

chin – machine           fit – feet                       lit – athlete

 

Two great online places to practice such minimal differences are: http://www.shiporsheep.com/ (with all the contrasting pairs possible), and any talking e-card, for example a talking cat:

http://www.americangreetings.com/ecards/happy-birthday/cat-talk-talking-card/pn/3265901 (enter the two words you want to contrast with a comma between them, then click “preview” – you can choose different voices and accents). If you prefer old-fashioned lists, google the book “How now brown cow”.

What about “e”, you ask? Yes, there is a pair, too.

 

ENGLISH SHORT “E” – THE “CALLING THE WAITER” SOUND

This “e” (usually spelled “e”, wow) is the sound you might hear in Spain when people want to draw the attention of a waiter (or their English teacher) – it´s a “normal”, short “e” pronounced with a wide smile of a frog.

 

Exercise 27.

English short “e” – spelling exceptions:

weather                      death                           leisure

head                            says                             said

Thames                       many                           friend

Leonard                     ate                               bury

 

ENGLISH LONG “E” – THE “FRENCH” ONE

This “e” sounds to me very French – you lips need to be rounded. The spelling includes a vowel (except “e”) or a pair of vowels PLUS R: “ur”, “ir”, “or”, “ear” and “eur”.

 

Exercise 28.

English long “e” – the “French” one:

surf                             urban                          purpose

word                           world                          bird

further                       turn                             hurt

girl                              work                           worse

turtle                           circle                           journey

earn                            earth                           amateur

 

Finally, an easy rule and we have finished the vowels.

 

Exercise 29.

English “au” is pronounced like a long “o” (in fact, we could call it the queen´s long “o” – see Exercise 20. to compare it with the queen´s long “a”):

automatic                   Austria                        Paul                            Laura

taught                         caught                         autumn                       athor

 

To sum up…

 

Exercise 30.

A little revision:

cat cut cart kit eat* Kurt caught
bat but Bart bit beat Burt abort*
hat hut heart hit heat hurt horde*
back buck bark Bic beak Burke bore*
Sam some psalm sin seen sermon* saw*

 

*these words don´t exactly follow the pattern but contain the adequate sound

CAE: LISTENING – TIPS (1)

This post is based on my CAE: Reading – tips (1) post, because both reading and listening are passive skills.

What you listen to in English could be roughly divided into six categories:

  1. What you listen to at/for work
  2. What you listen to for fun
  3. What you listen to to prepare for the exam listening paper
  4. The exam listening tasks you do at home/school under exam conditions (=fast!)
  5. The exam listening tasks you do at home/school but more rewinding etc., analysing things

Now, let me explain the points above.

Some think that everything we listen to in English prepares us for the Advanced exam, but it’s not really the case.

If at work you only listen to informal conversations OR business negotiations OR very technical lectures full of specialist vocabulary – it’s not really exam preparation.

If for fun you only listen to rock songs OR sports events OR (sadly and surprisingly) series – it’s not really exam preparation.

Also, if to prepare for the exam you only do listening tasks pausing, rewinding etc. – it’s not really exam preparation.

Ideally, you should do point 5 and then, after a few weeks/months, point 4. Additionally, (if you are lucky, you do it at work or for fun) you should listen to real lectures and conversations similar to those found in the exam, but not exam tasks. Little by little, this should become part of your everyday life – in a way, Cambridge wants you to act like an educated British person and start listening to intelligent conversations on everyday basis. Same goes for reading.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4 should be part of your everyday routine

https://www.ted.com/talks

https://www.youtube.com/user/TheGuardian

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=bbc+documentary

Of course you can also follow all of the above on Facebook.

Remember to listen – and do nothing else. You can’t look up every word you don’t understand. And if you really must – use TED Talks to focus on the moments when all you hear is a grlblblwrl, then switch on the subtitles to see what was said, then listen again without the subtitles.

The biggest secret about listening in English is that is about pronunciation – so my next posts are going to be the rules of English pronunciation which you don’t have to use but you must listen for 🙂

FORMAL vs. INFORMAL

Some tricks to check whether an expression is formal or informal (apart from looking it up in a few kinds of dictionaries or asking your teacher):

  • long Latin words (apprehension) and weird Germanic words (strength) are almost always formal (or neutral, so they are OK in a formal setting)
  • Use http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/. Enter your expression in the search box. A table with your expression should appear. Click your expression to show examples of its use. In a column to the left of the examples you shall see where the examples are from. If it’s “conv” (conversations), your expression is informal. If it’s “ac” (academic), it’s formal.
  • this blog is not written in formal English

EXTRACTING EXPRESSIONS FROM TEXTS

Whenever you want to study the material from a given Use of English exercise, it’s a good idea to write down the full expressions that are being tested or take note of the grammar rules involved. By “full expressions” I mean the sort of expressions that appear in dictionaries.

You can also try to start noticing these expressions while reading for fun (you won’t have time for that if you are reading an exam Reading exercise). A word of caution though – you still need to read the types of texts that appear in the exam, i.e. mainly serious newspaper articles. A great source is The Guardian online.

First, let’s see how it is done with a normal text. At some later point, I’ll post about how to do it with Use of English exercises.

Here’s an article from The Guardian followed by my notes:

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/apr/04/spotify-universal-albums-premium-subscribers-only

“New albums from some Universal Music artists will be available only to premium Spotify subscribers for the first two weeks of release, the two companies have announced. The deal means that for the first time ever, users of Spotify’s ad-supported free tier will not have access to the full catalogue of music on the streaming service. Instead, they will have to choose between paying up – the paid-for tier begins at £9.99 a month – or waiting another two weeks. Universal Music artists include Beck, Lorde, Katy Perry and Kanye West, as well as thousands of others. The streaming service says that artists can choose whether or not windowing applies to their work. The move, first rumoured in March, sees Spotify abandon its long-held stance that all music should be available to free subscribers, to encourage more people to sign up and then potentially convert them to a paid subscription down the line. Daniel Ek, chairman and chief executive of Spotify, said: “This partnership is built on a mutual love of music, creating value for artists and delivering for fans. We will be working together to help break new artists and connect new and established artists with a broadening universe of fans in ways that will wow them both.” Lucian Grainge, chairman and chief executive of Universal Music Group, said: “Today, streaming represents the majority of the business. Our challenge is transforming that upturn into sustainable growth. In a market this dynamic, one evolving more rapidly than ever before, success requires creative and continual re-evaluation of how best to bring artists’ music to fans.” Spotify’s largest competitors, including Apple Music and Tidal, do not have free tiers though both services allow time-limited free trials.”

1. release and rumour (noun = verb)

2. bla bla bla, someone have announced.

3. something happens for the first time ever

4. at £9.99 (the preposition used with prices is “at”)

5. x, y, z, as well as bla bla bla. (list-making)

6. to be able to choose whether or not + a sentence/ infinitive

7. broaden (verb), broad (adjective)

8. growth (noun), grow (verb)

9. competitor, competition, to compete

10.  though = although (but can be used at the end of sentences, too)

Now, if you have a well-organised notebook, you can copy the above expressions and structures into different sections:

word building: 1, 7, 8, 9

linking or writing: 5, 6, 10

tenses (Present Perfect): 2

time expressions: 3

prepositional phrases: 4