Languages can be divided into two groups. Listening to Spanish, German and Japanese (as mentioned before) we can usually write things down even if we don´t understand them. This is because, in these languages, the more syllables we pronounce, the more time we need to pronounce them. Sounds logical, doesn´t it? The bigger the number, the longer the time. But not in English.

In English you need to keep a certain rhythm while you speak. Stressed vowels in the most important words are going to be pronounced “well”, that is in such a way that we, learners, can understand them. All other vowels are going to be reduced to the minimum – they often simply disappear.  It doesn´t matter how many syllables/vowels there are between the important ones – the rhythm is always the same.

To see how it works, try this example (which I learned at British Council Krakow). Start by saying the first line slowly, clapping as you pronounce each word. Keep clapping at the same rhythm, while including more and more words from the other lines. You use the same amount of time to pronounce each line.

Exercise 1.

WORDS                                 HAVE                         STRESS

some WORDS                       HAVE                         STRESS

some WORDS                       HAVE                         some STRESS

some WORDS                       should HAVE             some STRESS

some of the WORDS                         should have HAD      some STRESS

some of the WORDS                         should have HAD      some of the STRESS

Of course, “some” or “should” (on their own or in shorter groups) are pronounced in a certain way, which can be found in a dictionary. However, in longer groups, their vowels or even consonants are going to be reduced or eliminated. In reality, the lines above are (more or less) read like this:

Exercise 2.

WORDS                                 HAVE                         STRESS

sm WORDS                           HAVE                         STRESS

sm WORDS                           HAVE                         sm STRESS

sm WORDS                          sh HAVE                    sm STRESS

sm of th WORDS                  sh av AD                     sm STRESS

sm f th WORDS                    sh av AD                    sm f th STRESS


Generally, we reduce “little words”: articles (e.g. the), pronouns (e.g. her), auxiliaries (e.g. can), linking words (e.g. and) and so on. We can´t eliminate the article “a” because it´s important for the grammar, but we can reduce its vowel to something that is neither “a”, nor “i”, nor “e” – just a neutral, indistinguishable, short vowel sound.

It´s easier to learn which vowels to reduce or eliminate in a given word than a given sentence, and there are even some rules to help you. Below are some examples. Remember that you can listen to the words using an online dictionary.


Exercise 3.

Try not to pronounce the unstressed vowel before the final “n”:

nation > na tn

mountain > moun tn

London > Lon dn

Sweden > Swe dn

urban > ur bn


Berlin > b lin

Japan > J pan

(Here we pronounce the vowel because the final syllable is stressed)


Exercise 4.

Try not to pronounce the unstressed vowel before the final “l”:

label > la bl

total > to tl

local > lo cl

Google > Goo gl

national > na tn l


Exercise 5.

In international-looking words, you “eat” as much as you can. Count the syllables – the English word is going to have at least one less.

literature > li tri che

chocolate > cho clt

restaurant > re strnt

history > hi stri

Barbara > bar bra


Exercise 6.

Consequently, “able” at the end of a word is NOT pronounced like “to be able to”:

sociable > so ci bl

comfortable > com fti bl

vegetable > ve gti bl

fashionable > fa shn bl


Exercise 7.

“Age” at the end of a word is NOT pronounced like “at the age of 3”:

courage > cou ridge (like in “fridge”)

storage > sto ridge

wreckage > wreck idge


Exercise 8.

Basically, if you see a short familiar word at the end of a longer word, it is not pronounced like the short word you know:

“climate” doesn´t rhyme with “mate”

“surface” doesn´t rhyme with “face”

“purpose” doesn´t rhyme with “pose” etc.


Exercise 9.

Finally, “-ture” and “-dure” are one syllable long:

structure > struc che

posture > pos che

texture > tex che

torture > tor che

procedure > pro ce je


What about reducing sounds in sentences, you ask? Fortunately, it helps just to KNOW about this phenomenon of “eating sounds”. A fellow teacher told me that her students thought that she talked a lot about some “festival”. If they knew better how English works, they would blame the pronunciation instead of focusing on the meaning. The “festival” was, in fact, an expression both easy and common: “first of all”.

You already know some phrases like that. If you remember that “wanna” is “want to” and “gonna” – “going to”, what could “dunno” be? It´s “I don´t know”! As you can see, English people themselves need to guess a lot from the context, that´s why they have so many jokes based on this, for example the so-called “knock knock jokes”, which you can easily google:


Joke 1.

A: [outside] <Knock, knock> [on the door]
B: [inside] Who’s there?
A: Orange.
B: Orange who? [demanding a surname]
A: Orange you going to let me in?


Joke 2.

A: Knock, knock.
B: Who’s there?
A: Lettuce.
B: Lettuce who?
A: Lettuce in, it’s cold out here.


Joke 3.

A: Knock, knock.
B: Who’s there?
A: Police.
B: Police?!
A: Police open the door!


Joke 4.

A: Knock, knock.
B: Who’s there?
A: Bingo.
B: Bingo who?
A: Bingo in to come and see you for ages.


Joke 5.

A: Knock, knock.
B: Who’s there?
A: Juno.
B: Juno who?
A: Juno what time it is?


Of course, there are other jokes based on pronunciation, too. There is even a separate word in English for them all: “puns”.


Joke 6.

When you’ve seen one shopping centre, you’ve seen a mall.


Joke 7.

Q: How do you fix a broken tuba?

A: With a tuba glue.



Exercise 10.

Here is a list of all the lines mentioned above, which you can use to practise:

I want to have some fun. > I wanna av some fun.

I don´t know. I´m going to phone her. > Dunno. Gonna phone her.

Aren´t you going to let me in? > Orange you going to let me in?

Let us in, it’s cold out here. > Lettuce in, it’s cold out here.

please > police

I´ve been going to come. > Bingo in to come.

Do you know what time it is? > Juno wha time it is?

You´ve seen them all. > You´ve seen a mall.

a tube of glue > a tuba glue


Finally, do remember that if you are a Spanish speaker, you eat sounds too and this can lead to some serious mistakes in English pronunciation. No wonder if “helado” is pronounced “elau”! Personally, I even have problems understanding English names on Spanish TV because “Robert Hunt” becomes “rover hun”. What other words are seriously mispronounced because of “eating” sounds the Spanish way?


Exercise 11.

Don´t eat these consonants! Remember there is an important difference in pronunciation between these pairs of words:

car – card                                block – blog

for – Ford                                dock – dog

wear – word                            path – pub

boar – board                            crap – crab

han – hand                               rover – robber – Robert





Pronunciation as such is generally ignored: by course books, which often only deal with it at the elementary level; by teachers, who in their curricula don´t have enough time even for the grammar; by students, who are sure they´ll never sound like native speakers anyway. However, as was pointed out to me by Gerard McLoughlin from IH Barcelona, the main aim of studying pronunciation is not to make people think you are English – it is to understand English people better. It´s for your LISTENING.

When people listen TO YOU, they know you are a foreigner, so they try to guess what you mean from the context. However, when YOU listen to native speakers (and they are in front of you, not on a recording), many don´t know how to help you. Slowing down is often not enough and you can´t expect them to start speaking “the way things are written down” or, to be exact, “the way things are written down and then read out in your language”.

Yes, that´s the problem with English which most of us, learners, recognise all too well. Whereas in Spanish, German or Japanese we are able to write down words that are dictated to us even though we don´t understand them, what we hear in English is the infamous “whagorlbershyemnemdaran” – a kind of white noise, in which, from time to time, we can pick up words we seem to know.

Why is it so? These three simplified rules should help you to understand that:

  1. English is not based on syllables.
  2. You can´t match letters to sounds.
  3. International words are ALWAYS pronounced differently.

Of course all this is going to be explained in detail in future posts, followed by numerous examples, exercises, learning methods and useful links. In fact, it´s a lot of fun (“Really? You pronounce it HOW? Ha, ha, ha!”) and it opens your mind too, helping you to understand how varied languages are and how skillful human beings can be with their facial muscles.


Some tricks to check whether an expression is formal or informal (apart from looking it up in a few kinds of dictionaries or asking your teacher):

  • long Latin words (apprehension) and weird Germanic words (strength) are almost always formal (or neutral, so they are OK in a formal setting)
  • Use Enter your expression in the search box. A table with your expression should appear. Click your expression to show examples of its use. In a column to the left of the examples you shall see where the examples are from. If it’s “conv” (conversations), your expression is informal. If it’s “ac” (academic), it’s formal.
  • this blog is not written in formal English


In my last post devoted to CAE writing, I’m going to discuss the difference between reports and proposals.

You might feel disappointed that I haven’t written about each genre separately, but I want my blog and FB page to be unique, describing mostly things you can’t find elsewhere. After all, the name of my FB page is “CAE strategies”, not “CAE content”. The Internet and course books are full of CAE writing examples, from which you can draw your own conclusions as to structure and vocabulary. My aim was rather to teach you how to behave during the exam and include preparation tips that you might not have heard before.

As to reports and proposals, they are quite similar. Both require formal language and between 220/2260 words.  Both need a title, section headings, an introduction, around three sections in the middle and a conclusion. The main difference is that you propose something for the future while you report on something that has already happened.


The word limit. It’s the same for both your writings: between 220 and 260 words. I’ll tell you a secret though – it doesn’t matter! Don’t waste your precious exam time on counting the words while you’re writing.

If you’re doing your writing right, it can’t be either too short or too long. If it’s too short, you didn’t follow the requirements of each genre – I shall write more about those in my upcoming posts. For example, in an essay you might not have provided two explanations for each of your two arguments. On the other hand, if it’s too long, you probably offered too many explanations, maybe you repeated your ideas or you got lost.

I guess it’s better, if anything, to pay attention to the number of lines. An essay introduction should be 4-6 lines long, the following two paragraphs 6-8, and the conclusion 3-5.

If you find yourself writing pieces that are too short because you lack ideas, remember to use synonyms, sprinkle your writing with a few adverbs (clearly, basically etc. – see my previous posts on writing vocabulary) and, most importantly, remember that you don’t have to be creative, original or interesting in your writing. Not this time. You can say things that are blatantly obvious (smoking is bad for your health) or invent completely ridiculous explanations (smoking in public places should be banned because if people smell bad, they kiss less, which leads to a lower number of children in the society).

If your writing tends to be too long, rigidly follow the structure of each genre, get rid of any repetitions and remember not to use more than one linking word per sentence (well, one of the two sentences you are linking may contain a relative clause, that’s OK).

keep reading writing samples and studying writing vocabulary! My posts on exam writing genres are coming soon.


Since I’ve been bombarding you with vocabulary lists lately, I think it’s time to show you yet another method of studying vocabulary – and, as what I’m covering now is CAE Writing, here is a worksheet I use to revise essay vocabulary by means of synonyms and little Post-its.

Prepare some post-its (little reusable sticky pieces of paper) with the vocabulary you wish to study. Here you can see that grouped into: verbs (with prepositions, if necessary), noun phrases (so much better than single nouns), adjectives/adverbs and linking. i suppose it’s nicer to study if you use different colours and arrangements.

Write the synonym of each word/expression directly under each piece of paper, on the large sheet. (Another way of doing this is using your language on the pieces of paper and English on the large sheet. However, personally I don’t recommend translation at the advanced level if synonyms can be used instead.)

To study, remove all pieces of paper, then stick them in the correct places. A more difficult option is to guess what’s under each piece of paper.

If you need a hint, just move the piece of paper a little bit to reveal the first letters.


If you’d like to recreate this particular worksheet, the pairs were as follows:

to lead to sth – to result in sth

to point sth out – to claim

to decline – to plummet

to grow – to soar

to distinguish – to draw a distinction

a serious disadvantage – a major drawback

important implications for sth – profound impact on sth

latest research – recent findings

the rapid growth -the significant rise

a source of sth – a trigger for sth

due to sth – owing to sth

whereas – while

mainly – largely

essential – vital

general – widespread

On the whole, … – By and large, …

It should be noted that… – It is worth bearing in mind that…

This means that… – …, which means that…

As to… – With regard to…

The main dangers are x of y, as well as nn and mm. = Apart from x of y, the main dangers are nn and mm.